This category includes the feedback, unpredictability, and disruption affordances, which can afford either intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, depending on contextual factors such as the kind and the user’s personal perception regarding the task at hand.
Affordances aimed at informing users of their progress and the next available actions or challenges.
C1. Clear and Immediate Feedback
The systems always inform users immediately of any changes or accomplishments in an easy and graspable way.
Does the system immediately inform the user when any change in status occur?
Does the system immediately inform the user when any task is completed or any goal is achieved?
Is the feedback always clear and understandable?
Does the feedback always explain exactly what has happened and which action caused it?
C2. Actionable Feedback
The system always informs users the next available actions and improvements available.
Does the system immediately inform the user what are the next available actions after any task is completed or any goal is achieved?
Does the system always inform how the next available actions are connected to the completed action?
C3. Graspable Progress
Feedback always tells users where they stand and what is the path ahead for progression.
Does the system always clearly inform the user where they stand in progression and possessions?
Does the system immediately inform which is the next step in progression that can be achieved and how to achieve it?
Does the system always inform which are the obtainable rewards or virtual goods and how to obtain them?
OCT Empowerment of Creativity and Feedback
MDL Feedback lenses
Affordances aimed at surprising users with variable tasks, challenges, feedback, or rewards.
C4. Varied Challenges
The system offers unexpected variability in the challenges or tasks presented to the user.
Does the system feature any unexpected variability in the tasks or goals that can be completed (e.g. by randomly suggesting a different goal)?
C5. Varied Rewards
The system offers unexpected variability in the rewards that are offered to the user.
Does the system award unexpected rewards for achievements or progression (e.g. by partly randomizing the rewards obtained for a completed task or goal)?
Does the user feel they can influence their chance of getting better random rewards?
OCT Unpredictability and Curiosity
MDL Varied challenge, Varied feedback, and Secrets
HEX Free Spirit
Change and Disruption
Affordances aimed at engaging users with disruptive tendencies by allowing them to help improve the system, in a positive rather than destructive way.
The system lets users contribute with ideas, content, plugins, or modifications aimed at improving, enhancing, or extending the system itself.
Does the system let the user create new content for themselves or other users?
Can the system be modified by the user in any way (e.g. by changing the system directly or through plugins or mods)?
Can the users contribute with ideas or suggestions?
Can the users influence in the system’s evolution (e.g. by voting in their preferred new features)?
C7. Disruption Control
The system is protected against cheating, hacking, or other forms of manipulation from users.
Is the system protected against cheating?
Is the system protected against hacking?
Does the system protect users from harassment from other users?
Does the system limit the user’s ability to gain unfair advantages over other users by any means?